Organic Farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manuregreen manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion plantingBiological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.[2] For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and IvermectinGenetically modified organismsnanomaterials, human sewage sludgeplant growth regulatorshormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited.[3][4] Reasons for advocation of organic farming include advantages in sustainability,[5][6] opennessself-sufficiencyautonomy/independence,[6] healthfood security, and food safety.

Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972.[7] Organic agriculture can be defined as:

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